Category Archives: Hotsuma

Kototama of Wosite and Hotsuma

Kototama

Kototama, which is written in kanji as 言霊, is the study and practice of the energy/power in words and speech. Kototama can be translated as “the spirit of words,” and as “the language of Spirit.” Kototama refers to the power of human words to create, to create things. Okunomichi has several posts on this topic and they can be found by using the Search box to the right and entering “Kototama”.

Wosite Language

The Wosite language used in writing the Hotsuma Tsutae, the Futomani, and the Mikasafumi documents is a Kototama language. Wosite studies are posted at https://woshiteworld.wordpress.com/. Recently, WoshiteWorld has published posts on the Kototama of Hotsuma and Wosite. They are: “The Kototama of Wosite,” and ““Process of Kototama”. In addition, there is a discussion of the waka poetry of Emperor Meiji and Empress Shoken.

 

***

 

Advertisements

Ōharano Jinja  大原野神社

DSC06110 OharanoJinja.JPG

Ōharano Jinja  大原野神社

Ōharano Shrine is a Shinto shrine located in Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Ōharano is dedicated to Amenokoyane, who composed the Mikasahumi document in Wosite.

Amenokoyane

Amenokoyane was a great-great-grandson of Toyoke Kami. He was named the first Kagami Tomi by Amateru Amakami. His responsibility was to discern light (ka) from dark (ga) and to keep society on the Amenaru Path. Amenokoyane received the honor name, Kasuga Kami. He was buried at the ancient Hiraoka Jinja in Osaka. Later in 768, he was enshrined at the Kasuga Taisha in Heijō-kyo (Nara) by his descendants, the Fujiwara. The capital was at Heijō-kyo from 710–40 and from 745–84. 

DSC06112 Oharano

DSC06113 Oharano altar

Emperor Kanmu transfered the capital from Heijō-kyo to Nagaoka-kyo (784-794). Nagaoka-kyo was located in the current Mukō  City and Nishikyō-ku which is part of Kyoto City. Kanmu enshrined Kasuga Myojin here at Ōharano Jinja. The main shrine building was constructed in the year 850 in the style of the Kasuga Taisha. There are four handsome honden behind the haiden prayer hall. We can only see the tips of two sets of chigi. The four enshrined kami are (1) Takemikazuchi, (2) Futsunushi, (3) Amenokoyane (Kasuga Kami) and (4) his wife, Hime Kasuga.

DSC06106Bridge

Koisawa-ike

The Koisawa-ike Pond was built as a facsimile of the Kasuga Taisha’s Sarusawa-ike. It is a famous spot for viewing colored leaves. Overlooking the pond is Wakamiya auxiliary shrine which honors Ameno-oshi-kumone-no-mikoto, son of Amenokoyane. 

DSC06117 Wakamiya Sha

DSC06118 Koisawa-ike

DSC06120Kouyou

Ōharano Jinja is a lovely spot for autumn colors and for feeling a connection with the spirit of the wise Amenokoyane.

Map

https://www.behance.net/gallery/69551523/KYOTO-OHARANO-JINJA-MAP

 

***

 

Seoritsuhime and Sakunado Jinja

DSC06059.JPG

Sakunado Jinja, 2018.10

Lake Biwa

Sakunado Jinja 佐久奈度神社 is an integral part of the Lake Biwa river system of Shiga Prefecture. Biwako, as the lake is called, is the largest lake in all Japan. The lake was called Awaumi in olden times, and gradually the pronunciation changed so that the area around the lake is called Ōmi. The area has been occupied since at least the Initial Jōmon period (~9300 years ago). Biwako has only one major outlet, the Setagawa  瀬田川, which becomes the Uji 宇治川 downstream, then the Yodo 淀川, before it flows into the Seto Inland Sea at Osaka.

Sakunado Jinja  佐久奈度神社

DSC06067

DSC06066

Sakunado Jinja overlooks the Setagawa. It is the shrine that ‘oversees’ the river system. The enshrined kami are the four haraedo purification kami, the first and foremost of them being Seoritsuhime 瀬織津姫. Note that the first syllable, the first character, in the name of Seoritsuhime and of Setagawa is Se, which means swift current. 

Setagawa River

DSC06072

DSC06075

The view of the Setagawa from Sakunado Jinja looks peaceful. However, just upstream to the right (the east) of this spot is the treacherous bend with its strong undertow. Many young people have lost their lives playing here.

SakunadoJinjaMap

Sakunado Jinja is at the bottom of this map, where the Setagawa turns west. Note that the Setagawa drains southward out of Lake Biwa near Ishiyama. Downstream from the Sakunado, the river’s name changes to Ujigawa, Uji River, as it flows into Kyoto. The Uji merges with two other rivers, the Katsura–gawa and the Kizugawa in Kyoto Prefecture. The Katsura has its headwaters in the mountains of Kyoto Prefecture, while the Kizu comes from Mie Prefecture. Starting from the confluence of these three rivers, the main river becomes the Yodo River. It flows south, through the city of Osaka, into Osaka Bay. The length of the river is 75 km (47 mi). 

Oharai Norito

This is the shrine of the Nakatomi Ōharai no Norito purification invocation to Seoritsuhime Kami.

Jinja Home Page 

Sakunado Jinja  佐久奈度神社   http://sakunado.jp/

 

***

 

Genetic Origins of Jomon and Japanese

 

East_Asian_Y-DNA_haplogroups

Journal Publications on Genetic Origins of Jomon and Japanese

We have been very interested in the Jomon culture of Japan. There seem to be pockets here and there with significant Jomon components in current society, for example in Hida and in Tohoku. Anecdotally people have mentioned “Jomon DNA” and we wondered what is it? We have surveyed the literature on the genetics of the Jomon indigenous people of the Japanese archipelago and we present a brief summary of our findings.

1.  Hammer et al, 1995, Y chromosomal DNA variation and the Peopling of Japan, 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1801189/pdf/ajhg00030-0136.pdf. Note paternal ancestry.

Discussion.  YAP element is present in 42% of Japanese and absent in Taiwanese. YAP is absent in non-Japanese Asians inc. Taiwanese, Chinese, and Koreans. YAP is a marker of Jomon male lineages. Y-chromosome of modern Japanese is 39% Yayoi, 61% Jomon. YAP+ entered Japan with (only) Jomon, YAP- with both Jomon and Yayoi.

A broad picture of gene flow to Japan:

30K YA — Jomon enter on land bridges

20K YA — YAP+ and YAP- occur in Jomon

10K YA — Isolation of Jomon due to end of ice age

2.3 K YA — Yayoi enter and bring more YAP-

2.  Tanaka et al, 2004, Mitochondrial genome variation in eastern Asia and the peopling of Japan,  http://genome.cshlp.org/content/14/10a/1832. A long and important paper on the peopling of Japan based on maternal ancestry.

Abstract of Abstract:  New clades and subclades emerged. Confirmed present-day Japanese have closest genetic affiity to northern Asian populations, esp. Koreans. Revealed a high degee of differentiation in Paleolithic Japanese. Detected ancient southern and northern migrations (Ryukyu, Ainu). Found direct connections with Tibet, like that of Y-chromosomes. Suggests that “Japan could be included in an area of migratory expansion to Continental Asia. All the theories that have been proposed up to now to explain the peopling of Japan seem insufficient to accommodate fully this complex picture.”

Archaeological record:  attests that humans reached Japan 30,000 YA when still connected to Continent by two land bridges, north and south. Neolithic period in Japan is known as the Jomon period. Later, Continental people arrived, initiating the Yayoi period.

Results for Macrohaplogroup M  (D, …) :

M12 is a rare haplogroup, only in mainland Japanese, Koreans, and Tibetans (Tibetans having highest frequency 8% and diversity 50%). p. 1847 says that it is the mitochondrial counterpart of the Y-chromosome marker YAP+, a marker from C. Asia to mainland Japan.

Results for Macrohaplogroup N:  (A, Y, N9a, N9b, F, B) :

F is a subgroup of R9. Six mutations define F1. Only subhaplogroup F1b is well represented in the Japanese inc. Ainu and Ryukyuan. Highest diversities are in eastern China including Taiwan (100%).

Lineage Sorting and Population Pooling

Japanese, inc Ainu and Ryukyuans, part of a big group of Korean, Buryat, Tibetans, and N. Chinese. Ainu was the first differentiated, and Ryukyuans separated later. Japanese and Koreans still comprised a single group

The Peopling of Japan

Table 4 Frequency results.  Japanese relate by far to Koreans, less so to northern Chinese. Ryukyuans present smallest distance to Buryats, then S Chinese. Ainu cloest to mainland Japanese, Koreans, and N. Chinese. 

Table 4 Sequence matches.  Japanese relate first to Koreans and second to Buryats. Ryukyuans to Buryats then to Koreans. Ainu greatest affinities toward Kamchatka. Ryukyuans had a dual northern and southern Asian background previous to  admixture with mainland Japanese. Great distance and low identity values for Ainu-Ryukyuan pairs, indicating notable maternal isolation.

Some conclusions:  Ancient Japanese inhabitants came from northern Asia, later immigration came from southern Asia. Ainu have a rather recent Siberian influence. Ryukyuans show an older radiation from southern China. Macrohaplogroup N is larger in Ainu (50%) than in Ryukyuans (15%). Both of these populations are considered largely isolated but “they most probably had different maternal origins.”

Discussion

“… the actual Japanese population is the result of a complex demographic history…” The Ryukyuans and Ainu are well differentiated from the mainland Japanese, yet that have common pecularities shared with the mainland Japanese (highest frequences in Asia for M7a, M7b2, and N9b. For both, their closest relatives are northern populations. “…our results are strikingly coincident with the previously proposed northern origin and influences received by the Japanese.” Horai’s (1997) mt studies demonstrated closest relation with Koreans. Some of these are substantially recent roots. Although it is well-documented that there was substantial immigration from Korea during the Yayoi period, mainland Japanese do share some of their haplotypes exclusively with Southern China (2.5%), N. China (1.5%), C Asia (1.5%), and Indonesia.

“In summary, Japan could have received several northern and southern Asian maternal inputs since Paleolithic times, with notable northern Asian immigrations through Korea in the late Neolithic and more specific gene flows from western Asia, Siberia, and southern Islands.”

3.  Hammer, 2006, Dual origins of the Japanese: common ground for hunter-gatherer and farmer Y chromosomes,

http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v51/n1/full/jhg20068a.html

http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v51/n1/pdf/jhg20068a.pdf

Haplogroup D as a Jomon marker. Haplogroups D and C began expansions in Japan ~20,000 and ~12,000 years ago, respectively. These are the Jomon hunter-gatherers with Central Asian origin. The Yayoi farmers with haplogroup O and SE Asian origin began to expand only 4,000 years ago. These are the dual origins. D presence in Japanese males was 35%, ranging from 75% in Ainu to 26% in Tokushima. Outside Japan, D is extremely rare. Presence of haplogroup O was 52% overall of six populations (Ainu, Aomori, Shizuoka, Tokushima, Kyushu, Okinawa). O is not found in Ainu. Kyushu 62%, Honshu 51%, Okinawa 38%.

4.  Stoneking and Delfin, 2010, The human genetic history of East Asia: Weaving a complex Tapestry,   http://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(09)02067-3.  A review paper.

East Asia encompasses the region bordered by Ural Mountains in west, by Himalayan Plateau in SW, by Bering Strait in NE, and SE Asia. Presents two figures: mtDNA haplogroups and Y-chromosome haplogroups. Note in the latter, the yellow D-M174 in Tibet and Japan, very dissimilar to Korea.

5.  Adachi, Noboru, et al, Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Hokkaido Jomon skeletons: Remnants of archaic maternal lineages at the southwestern edge of former Beringia, 2011.  Abstract only. 

~22,000 YA is coalescence time of haplogroups N9b, D4h2, G1b, and M7a which were observed in the Jomon skeletons. All of these haplogroups except M7a were observed with high frequencies in SE Siberians but were absent in SE Asians. This implies that the Hokkaido Jomon were direct descendants of Paleolithic Siberians.  

Illustration above is from Wa-pedia.

*

 

Kimi no Na Wa and Musubi

kumihimo musubi S

Preface

Kimi no Na Wa is an extremely popular and powerful anime movie directed by Makoto Shinkai. We say “powerful” in that it is thought-provoking of matters outside the ordinary limits of time and space.

Musubi.  Kumihimo is a Japanese braiding method for making decorative and functional cords, and it is depicted in several scenes in the movie. Musubi is a knot, a tying together, of connecting people and things. The photo shows two kumihimo cords in a musubi knot.

Motohisa Yamakage has taught Koshinto through books such as The Essence of Shinto. Yamakage Sensei writes, “Musubi means to unite or bind together. … the concept of musubi signifies the proliferation of life and spirit. … the very process of creating and giving birth to life and spirit is described as musubi and we [Koshinto] place it in very high regard.”

Time and Space.  We have related the Tanabata Festival tale as the weaving of time and space. This is an observance since early Jomon times that takes place in the seventh night of the seventh lunar month, when the moon is only half-full and the stars in the Milky Way can clearly be seen. The word tanabata means a kind of weaving loom. So picture a fabric being woven with threads of warp and woof. The threads of the warp represent the flow of time, and the shuttling of the woof creates space.

Kimi no Na wa (君の名は) is an international hit movie, entitled Your Name in English. The warping and entangling of time and space is the theme of this metaphysical movie. Perhaps that’s why millions of people find the movie so intriguing.

In today’s essay, we consider how the movie conveys the message of Musubi through the imagery of braiding.

Early on in the movie, we see that Mitsuha lives with her sister and grandmother in a very small town in the rural land of Hida. Grandmother is priestess of an old shrine which has as its goshintai sacred object a megalith in the center of a meteor crater. Mitsuha serves as miko-san shrine maiden and performs a ritual at the shrine. Grandmother is also teaching Mitsuha to braid cords in the style of kumihimo. What, we wonder, is the significance of these elements?

Musubi in Kimi no Na wa

Grandmother’s explanation of Musubi uses the imagery of kumihimo. In one scene, Mitsuha and her sister are going with their grandmother on a pilgrimage to the sacred place of the megalith. On the way, Grandmother is explaining Musubi. We have restored the original word, kami, to the subtitles.

Musubi is the old way of calling the local guardian kami.

Tying thread is Musubi. Connecting people is Musubi.

These are all the kami’s power.

So the braided cords that we make are the kami’s art and represent the flow of time itself.

They converge and take shape. They twist, tangle, sometimes unravel, break, then connect again.

Musubi-knotting. That’s time.

Musubi

From the above, we can see that the concept of musubi is that of gathering and connecting. Grandmother has explained how people are connected in time and space, and she stresses the time element. This is the basic theme of the movie.

*

 

Toyouke Ōkami

 

dscn2973

Toyoke-sama.  Our beloved Toyoke-sama is also known as Toyoke Kami and Toyouke Ōkami 豊受大神. Toyoke-sama was arguably the greatest kami of Hotsuma. He is remembered as the father of Isanami and grandfather of Amateru. Amateru came to study with him when he was sixteen. Toyoke-sama imparted to the future Amakami of Yamato the wisdom of the ancestors known as the To-no-Wosite teachings of the Ame-naru Michi, the Way of Universe. 

The teaching is for all, and especially for leaders of society, to embody high principles of human behavior: honesty, integrity, and caring for the welfare of others.

Hutakami.  Toyoke’s daughter Hisako became Isanami, spouse of Isanagi. The couple are known as Hutakami (Futakami), the kami couple of myth and legend. The Hutakami went throughout the land of Hinomoto teaching the Awa no Uta, the Song of Universe, containing all 48 of the syllables of Wosite language, promoting speech for improved communication and cooperation as well as for promoting good health and vitality.

Takamimusubi.  Toyoke was descended from Ta-no-Kunisatsuchi. Toyoke’s imina birth name was Tamakine. This means he was a man of tama spirit. We notice the many local words beginning with Ta. Tamakine became the fifth Takamimusubi in Hitakami which we now call Tohoku. Hi-taka-mi means to see the sun high in the sky. A remnant of Hitakami remains in the name of the major Tohoku river, Kitakami-gawa, whose old name was indeed Hitakami-gawa.

Taga.  The center of Hitakami was at Tagajo (Taka-jo), east of current Sendai. You can get there after a short train ride. You will be shown the remains of a former government center. There is still a large stone inscribed in more recent times, called the Keta-tsubo. On this rise may have been located the Yamate-miya of Toyoke. Nearby are several shrines named Taga Jinja. One of these, we believe, is the original shrine of Toyoke. This shrine spun off the Taga Taisha in Ōmi (now Shiga-ken). Why Ōmi? Ōmi was the center of Yamato under the care of Isanami and Isanagi.

We visited Taga Taisha. It is a large shrine that hosts a million devotees on New Year’s Hatsumode. By looking for the oldest part of the keidai precincts, we found Toyoke’s hokora next to Amateru’s.

Tanba.  Toyoke lived to a ripe age. When he was quite along in years, there was a disturbance in the region we call Kyotango in Kyoto-fu near the Japan Sea. Amateru asked Toyoke-sama to manage the situation from a base in Miyazu. Toyoke-sama transferred from Hitakami to Tanba and all went well and the people prospered. Toyoke-sama taught how to raise the five grains such as rice, wheat, and beans, and also how to raise silkworms for weaving.

When Toyoke-sama felt his lifeforce dwindling, he called for a tomb to be dug in the mountain of Kujigatake. He would prepare for his last breath. When Amateru heard about his grandfather, he rushed to his side. He entered Toyoke’s tomb and received the final teaching. Thus Amateru was initiated into the high level of wisdom. Then Amateru was sent out and the tomb sealed. The people were in such grief that Amateru stayed for a while to comfort them.

Toyoke’s tomb is said to be on Mt. Kujigatake (Kushi-gatake, also called Manai-gatake) where there is a manai spring. At the foot of Kujigatake is a shrine called Hinumanai Jinja. Toyoke Ōkami is the revered deity. The monument shown above mentions Five Grains. It is said that half-way up the mountain is an altar rock for the offering of five grains and other foods.

When Amateru himself came to the end of his life, he had a tomb built nearby. Amateru’s trusted friend, Sarutahiko, was the last to see Amateru in his tomb.

Futomani.  Toyoke-sama is the author of the Futomani Motoake chart which was employed as an aid for teaching cosmology and as a guide for decision-making. Amateru complemented the Futomani by selecting its 128 waka. We wouldn’t be surprised if Toyoke-sama also organized the Wosite syllabary into the neat, logical system that it is.

awa_motoake

Motoake chart from Julian-Way

Another grandson of Toyoke-sama also attended the lessons with Amateru, and he became Takagi, the seventh Takamimusubi.

ukesuteme     ne no kuni ni kite     tamakine ni …

Ukesuteme came to Ne no kuni to see Tamakine …   from Hotsuma Tsutae Aya 15

Another Kunisatsuchi, Ta’s brother, Ka-no-Kunisatsuchi, had gone to China, and he had a descendant named Ukesuteme. Ukesuteme came to Hitakami to study with Toyoke accompanied by the sister of Isanagi from the land of Ne. Shirayama-hime (Kokori-hime) and Ukesuteme both excelled in acquiring the wisdom of To.

ukesuteme korohin kimi to      tinami ai

After Ukesuteme returned to the Korohin mountains and married the ruler of Akagata, they had a son. Consequently, admired for her wisdom as for her nurturing, she became known as Nishi no Haha, Mother of the West. In China, the Mother of the West has the name Xi Wangu. She is one of the Seven Immortals. In Taoist paintings she holds the Peach of Immortality in her hand. In the Wosite literature, it is written that she received peach branches from Toyoke-sama to plant in Korohin.

Alternate identities.  Another name for the kami of food is Ukanomitama. And Toyouke’s most popular identity is Inari, the kami of the rice fields. The Inari shrines are the most plentiful in Japan, grounded in folk religion. Inari devotees may not realize the connection with the sage of Hitakami.

Toyouke at Ise and Moto-Ise Shrines:  Probably due to Toyouke’s reknown as provider of Five Grains and foodstuffs, his name has morphed into the female Toyouke-hime no kami at the Geku Outer Shrine of Ise Jingu. And yet, the chigi of the honden is cut vertically in male sotosogi fashion! As it is at the Moto-Ise shrines Hinumanai Jinja and Manai Jinja Okumiya of Kono Jinja (below).

dscn3042

Remembering Toyoke-sama

Let us remember Toyoke-sama who served the people of Hinomoto during their critical developmental period. Toyoke-sama, the great sage, set society’s tone of compassion based on a deep connection with Universe  And in remembering Tamakine Toyoke-sama, we do not forget our own tama nature.

Note:  This has been cross-posted from  https://woshiteworld.wordpress.com/2017/03/05/toyouke-okami/

*