Category Archives: Science

What is Fossa Magna and what does it have to do with jade and the islands of Japan?


Ancient jadeite showing skillful techniques

Fossa Magna Museum

This wonderful geology museum is located in the city of Itoigawa. It is named after the Great Crack in the middle of Japan, the terminus of the Japan Median Tectonic Line (map below). The Fossa Magna (Latin for great rift) refers to the place where Pacific/Oceanic and Continental plates meet. You can learn all about it at this museum. Itoigawa is the home of Japanese jade, and this is its museum.


Itoigawa City, Home of Jade


Itoigawa is a charming small city on the coast of the Japan Sea, in the prefecture of Niigata. Itoigawa is on the Japan Median Tectonic Line, and its location is marked with a red arrow. The Fossa Magna zone is shown in yellow. Itoigawa is known as Japan’s source of jade, the mineral/gem jadeite. Jade has a long history in Japan, and it has been worked by early Jomon people. Jadeite is called hisui. It is usually written in kana characters, ヒスイ or  ひすい , so perhaps this term is of Jomon origin. Jadeite was named the National Stone of Japan in 2016.

Nunakawa-hime, Lady of Jade

Nunakawahime statueIn Koshi-no-kuni, also known as Esshū province, now known as Hokuriku, a folk heroine of Itoigawa is Nunakawahime. Legend says she was beautiful and wise, and she knew how to make magic using jade. Her fame was so great that the famous Ōkuninushi came from Izumo in the west to win her hand. And he did. Their son became Takeminakata, the kami revered at Suwa Taisha in nearby Nagano. This statue of Nunakawahime holding a large jade stands on the north side of the Itoigawa station.

Birth of the Oldest Jade in the World

How was jade created? The process began 500 million years ago. Jadeite crystallizes from a hydrothermal liquid in the subduction zone of two tectonic plates. In a zone about 30 to 50 km below the surface, elements (Na, Al, Si, and H2O) formed jadeite at temperatures of 250 to 650 C. Jadeite was created during the period 100 to 500 million years ago.

hisui surfaces

Itoigawa lies on the border of two plates. 250 million years ago, the Oceanic plate (right) pushed below the Continental plate (left). Jadeite (colored turquoise) that had been created deep below rose to the surface.


Jadeite comes in various colors depending on the elements present in it. The colors range from white, through various shades of green, lavender, and blue, to black.IMG_2816

History of Jade in Japan

first jade jewelry

6000 years ago, jade jewelry in the form of small pendants were made. They were of gemstone quality and may be the oldest human-worked jade in the world.

5000 years ago, there were jade workshops making larger pendants in Itoigawa, as found at the Chojogahara and Teraji archaeological sites in Itoigawa.

3000 years ago, magatama pendants were made. 

first magatamaMagatama means curved bead. They were generally comma-shaped, hence their name; they were also in the shapes of animals and insects.

8th century, a Buddhist statue, containing jade, is made for Todaiji. Subsequently jade mysteriously disappears from the scene. It was believed for a long time that there was no more jade in Japan.

In 1938, the tanka poet Gyofu Soma suggested that jade might be found in Itoigawa because of the Nunakawahime legend. And jade was rediscovered in Japan.

Fossa Magna and The Birth of the Japanese Islands

There is a stunning video at the museum which explains the role of the Fossa Magna in forming the islands of Japan. The Fossa Magna was once under sea. 20 million years ago, the land was still connected to Asia. Then it broke apart from Asia and the Sea of Japan was created. The land split into two parts: the southern part of the land rotated one way and the northern part rotated the other way, creating an opening, like a door. Fossa Magna was in the sea in this gap. Then the eruption of subterranean volcanoes filled the Fossa Magna sea with ash, sand, and mud. And connected the two parts of land. Thus was the main island of the archipelago created. Volcanoes on land formed 2.6 million years ago in the Fossa Magna zone, like Mt. Fuji on the main island of Honshu. The dark area in the middle is the Kanto Mountains, and Mt. Fuji is on the left edge.

volcanoes of fossa




December Solstice Greetings


Megalith for viewing winter solstice sunrise (photo by S. Tokuda)


One Earth, One Sun, One People

In ancient cultures, winter solstice day was the beginning of the new year. On this shortest day of the year, people knew that the next day would start to be slightly longer, and spring would be coming. Winter solstice is a symbol of rebirth and regeneration.

December 21 and 22 mark the days of the solstice which we call the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere.

Iwakage has posted an article entitled, Winter Solstice 2017. It gives some of the dates and times in various time zones around the world. At the instant of time that is astronomical solstice, it is already early Friday morning of the 22nd in Japan, where Iwakage is located. One of the “earliest” times is in Hawaii when the solstice occurs at 6:28 a.m. on the 21st.

To our readers around the world, thank you for visiting us:

U.S., Japan, France, Italy, U.K., Australia, Canada, Brazil, Germany, Morocco, Russia, Netherlands, Spain, India, Philippines, Hungary, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Ireland, Belgium, Mexico, Switzerland, Estonia, Chile, Thailand, New Zealand, Serbia, Bulgaria, Portugal, Austria, S. Korea, Ukraine, Argentina, Finland, Romania, Poland, Taiwan, Switzerland, Slovenia, S. Africa, Israel, Greece, E.U., Norway, Cape Verde, Czech Republic, Luxembourg, Peru, Denmark, United Arab Emirates, Colombia, Turkey, China, Iceland, Belarus, Croatia, Pakistan, Latvia, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Lithuania, Puerto Rico, Slovakia, Venezuela, Panama, and eighty other countries.

Seeing the names of these 150 countries truly impresses upon us that we are all One People living on this Earth under our Sun. Solstices, equinoxes, and all the days of the year come to all of us. Although the times on our clocks may differ, these astronomical times are the exact same moment for all of us.

Okunomichi wishes every one of you a Happy New Year!





The Super-Science of Katakamuna, by K. Fukano – 2.

KATAKAMUNA 3 centers

We continue reporting on the book by physicist K. Fukano. He has studied the 80 verses of the Katakamuna scrolls as presented by Narasaki, and has interpreted them according to his own knowledge of physics. Katakamuna verses are written in the style of waka, i.e., in rhythm of five and seven, five and seven, etc. They are written in spiral fashion beginning in the middle. In the center is a circular symbol, one of the three shown here. The most coKATAKAMUNA verses 5 & 6mmon circle is the Yatanokakami symbol, the one on top which occurs in 71 out of 80 verses. The next is called Futomani which appears in 7, and the bottom circle is the Mikumari, in 2 verses.

These two spirals are Verses 5 and 6 of the Katakamuna scrolls. Together they are the most important. Verse 5 has 24 characters. Verse 6 has 24+5 characters, the last five being “Ka ta ka mu na,” which may be taken to be the title of this work, and will be omitted from the analysis.

Together, these two verses have 48 syllables/characters. All of the Katakamuna characters appear once and only once in these two verses. The spiraling characters have been put into the form of a table, as shown at bottom. This chart comes from Narasaki’s “orange booklet,” Ultra-Ancient Civilization of Japan, which we reported on earlier. By studying the chart, we can figure out how the character syllabary was organized and formed.

Before going on, we’d like to give this excerpt from the earlier post. We wrote:

Narasaki learned from the scrolls that spinning and orbiting are the basic nature of time and space. Because of the spinning and orbiting motions, there is a center of motion and the  energy is equal in all directions. This wave movement makes magnetic and electrical energy. This affects mountains, the environment, humans, and plants.

Character Order of Katakamuna

The organization of the Katakamuna syllabary of characters is not by a, i, u, e, o, although those are indeed the five vowels. Let us read Verse 5:

hi hu mi yo i     ma wa ri te me ku ru

mu na ya ko to     a u no su he si re

Verse 5

Verse 5

Now, look at the two sequences of five characters:  hi fu mi yo i      mu na ya ko to. These are the numbers from one to ten!

HI FU MI.002

Next, examine the small circle going around the larger circle. Starting from the “east” position, the circle moves counter-clockwise from hi (1) through ya (8), and there is a double small circle for ko (9), and finally no circle at all for to (10). Already, we see that the character sequence describes movement in space and time. It may represent the sun’s cycle as seen from earth, from sunrise to the next sunrise. We have learned in Part 1 that the small circle is called Mari and the large circle is Ma.

You can study Verse 6 in the same way.

ka ta ti sa ki     so ra ni mo ro ke se

yu ye nu o wo     ha e tu yi ne ho n*

Note: possibly “n” was originally pronounced “wu.” See Part 3.

Verse 6

Verse 6

The characters may be grouped according to their similarities. The seven characters, ma wa ri te me ku ru,  do seem to be related, don’t they? And so for the second set of seven, a u no su he si re. We can group the characters in this fashion all the way to the end.


Yatanokakami and 48 characters

48 in Yatanokakami

The chart above has grouped the 48 characters into similar patterns. The illustration makes a point: all 48 symbols come from the Yatanokakami symbol. The circular symbol with eight small circles in the center of Verses 5 and 6 and the vast majority of the verses is called Yatanokakami. What is it, and what does it mean? Let us break this long word down into its constituent parts. Ka can mean root, and it can stand for chikara, power. Mi is essence (e.g., fruit). Therefore, kami is the essence of the root or essence of the power.

What is kakami? We usually think that a kagami is a mirror. In this case, using the two meanings of ka, we have: the essence of the root of the power.

What is yatanoYa is eight in traditional Japanese. Yatano means fully saturated. It is equivalent to eight electrons fully saturating the orbit around the nucleus of an atom.

Finally, Yatanokakami means the fully saturated essence of the root of the power. That is represented by the symbol of the Ma circle and its eight Mari circles. In other words, it is the cosmology of Ama, Universe. And Katakamuna is the root of Universe.

Table of Verses 5 and 6

Verses 5-6


In the above poems, we have used original syllable pronunciations, not the more recent Chinese sounds. The four Sino-Japanese sounds are chi (originally ti), tsu (tu), shi (si) and fu (hu).

You may have noted a lack of dakuon voiced consonants. Ancient languages followed the Kototama principle and avoided dakuon because it darkens vocal energy. Examples of voiced (unvoiced) syllables: da (ta),  zu (su), bi (hi). See also other posts with keyword “Kototama” by Okunomichi and by

Revised 2017.04.14


The Super-Science of Katakamuna, by K. Fukano – 1.


In an earlier post entitled, KATAKAMUNA ANCIENT CIVILIZATION, we mentioned a book written by Fukano:

Fukano Kazuyuki, 超科学書「カタカムナ」の謎, Chogakusho Katakamuna no Nazo, Super-Science Katakamuna Mystery, Kosaido Books, 1993

We have been studying the book and we present this summary of the main points of the super-physics as we understand them. While most of us think of Katakamuna as an ancient writing system of Hinomoto, author Fukano has interpreted the verses as descriptions of the physics of Universe. What is remarkable is that such an old physics could be so like modern physics. Put another way, our modern physics may be approaching what was known to ancient people! Indeed, Katakamuna’s Latent and Physical Worlds may correspond to David Bohm’s Implicate and Explicate Orders

Katakamuna Universe

What is Katakamuna? Katakamuna is the root of all in Universe. Ama is Universe and includes Time, Space, and Everything. The Space aspect of Universe is Ame. Time and Space together are Ma. Mari is the fundamental quantum which is always spinning ‘up’ and ‘down’ and orbiting around Ma. Through the movement of Mari, Amashigenryou is possible and it, itself, is revolving and condensing. Thus Amashigenryou creates the two aspects of Universe: Kamuna, The Latent World, and then Amana, the Phenomenal World. The Phenomenal World is created through the combined energies of Kamuna and Amana. Kamu is infinite energy of Universe.

Amashigenryou is the fundamental building block of Universe created by the motion of Mari. Mari are quanta of the ultimate differentiated “particles” and their movement creates all the quanta of Amashigenryou as well as the Latent World and the Physical World.

Kamuna and Amana Worlds


Kamuna     Amana

Latent     Physical

Unseen     Seen

Infinite     Limited

Hidden     Present

Kamuna is the Latent World. We may call it the Unseen World, Infinite World, Hidden World. It is the world of pure nonphysical energy. Kamuna is mugen-sekai, Infinite world. 無限 mugen, limitless.

Amana is the world we know as the Physical World. Also it may be called the Seen World, Limited World, Present World, Phenomenal World. It is our familiar world of matter. Amana is gensho-sekai, Phenomenal World, the world we live in. 現象 gensho, phenomenal. 現 gen, present; sho, vision.

Note that author Fukano calls Kamuna and Amana “worlds.” Perhaps we can think of them as dimensions, or as Bohm’s orders. Amana comes from Kamuna. The Physical World comes from the Latent/Hidden World. The integrated chikara power of both creates Universe.

Kamuna Amana

Kamuna giving rise to Amana

Amashigenryou アマ 始 元 量

Amashigenryou is the elementary quantum of Universe, the spiraling of the microscopic particles of Universe. Everything is a converted version of Amashigenryou.  アマama; 始 shi, beginning; 元 gen, origin; 量 ryou, quantum

Amashigenryou always keeps revolving and rotating, repeating, overlapping, condensing, creating first Kamuna and then Amana. Then the chikara powers of Kamuna and Amana combine. The combined power creates  ryushi’, seen particles, which are the ‘gensho’ phenomenal particles, and stabilizes the Seen World. The Seen World then has matter, substance, seimei living things and objects.

Kamu and Mari

Kamu is infinite energy. There is infinite energy Kamu in Universe. Universe is made of physical matter as well as the Latent, i.e., the physical and the nonphysical. Amashigenryou is generated in the world of Infinite Kamu, from ‘the infinite derivation of Mari.’

Mari. The ultimate differentiated quantum of Universe is called Mari. It is the source of Amashigenryou and other quanta. Mari is a spherical particle. The size of Mari is in the order of 10^-80 cm. Mari is not a perfect sphere; it has a dent in its surface. Without this dent, rotation around an axis would not be possible. Mari simultaneously rotates clockwise and counter-clockwise, creating yin-yang polarities. 

Latent World

In the Latent World, Mari マリ are quanta of the itsu-tsumi (5 tsumi) : toki, tokoro, ikatsumi, makumi, karami.

toki is quantum of time

tokoro is quantum of place

ikatsumi is quantum of electricity

makumi is quantum of magnetism

karami is quantum of gravity

The mari of ‘toki’ is Amashigenryou, the quantum of time in the Latent World. The mari of ‘tokoro’ is  アメAme, the quantum of space in the Latent World. 

The last three tsumi (the quanta of electricity, magnetism, and gravity) are together called mitsugo in the Latent World. They create the living and non-living ‘mokoro’ with forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity.

Mokoro in the Latent World consist of one each of the three mitsugo forces. The ‘object mokoro’ of nonliving things is a mitsugo with one axis that is repeatedly living and dying. The ‘seimei mokoro’ of living things has eight axes, instead of only one. All eight axes are living and dying repeatedly and all eight are rotating.

Physical World

The Physical World of Time, Space, and Everything is derived from, or created by, the Latent World through the action of the Mari.

Mari of ‘toki’ makes Time.

Mari of ‘tokoro’ makes Space.

The other Mari together make Everything: the living and nonliving things of the Physical  World.

Editor’s Note:  The details in this last part about the relationships between Latent and Physical Worlds come from the small table, very near the end, on page 225 of the book, while the beginning of this post comes from an earlier part of the book. We wish to express our appreciation to E.K. for assistance with the difficult translation. 

Concluding Remarks

The physics of Fukano is not easy to understand, and we do not claim to have interpreted it correctly. However, we feel it is important to call it to your attention so that you can delve more deeply into its study. We continue with Parts 2 and 3.

Revised 2017.04.12


Dashed Spotlight and Lahaina Noon as Summer Solstice Indicators


Iwaya Rockbat published the May 21 dashed spotlight report for 2016,

The appearance of this spotlight in the grotto of Senkoko-Ishi heralds the coming of summer solstice 31 days hence, in other words June 21, 2016 at Kanayama Megaliths. And 31 days after the solstice, July 23, the dashed spotlight will make its last appearance of the year. There are 62 days between the two dates, and the solstice is in the middle. Remember, between spring and autumn, the sun daily moves northward until the solstice and then moves southward, retracing is path. This dashed phenomenon only lasts for a few days each time.

Okunomichi has published two posts on Lahaina Noon, (1)2016-05-25 12.27 stopsign  and (2)

What is Lahaina Noon? It is the popular term used in the Hawaiian Islands for the two days per summer when the noontime sun is directly overhead any given spot in the Islands (Okunomichi link 1). On those two days, the zenith sun casts no shadow of thin vertical objects such as poles and stop signs (Okunomichi link 2). Those two dates in 2016 for four Hawaii cities are listed in the first of the two posts. For Honolulu, Oahu, the dates are May 26 and July 15; for Hilo, Hawaii, they are May 18 and July 24. On the Tropic of Cancer, there is only the one date of the summer solstice itself, June 20.

It occurred to Iwaya Rockbat that stop signs such as the one shown by Okunomichi can be used as indicators of summer solstice date, just as the dashed spotlight does. Using the dates given for Honolulu, May 26 and July 15, we counted the number of days between them and found there were 50 days. The middle date will occur 25 days after May 26. It will be June 20. It is exactly right for Honolulu!

For Hilo, the two dates are May 18 and July 24. The designated summer solstice date is June 20. Again, this is perfectly right!

So, what prevents us from using signposts in Hawaii to determine by observation the date of the summer solstice? The big issue is the accuracy of observation. The day before the photo was taken, Okunomichi had taken a similar photo of the same signpost. The shadow was close to non-existent. It was nearly the same. We conclude that this is not a very accurate way of determining the date of summer solstice. A place closer to the equator would be better, but how much better?

On the other hand, the megaliths of Senkoku allow a special beam of light to strike the side of stone A’ in the grotto. Most of the time, after clearing that side panel, the sunbeam lands on the floor of the grotto. Only on a few special days a year does it illuminate the “bumps” on the triangular face that the ancients had carved especially for this purpose. The arrival and end of the dashed spotlight is a delicate determinator of the summer solstice date.

We can marvel at the ingenuity of the ancient people who created with wonderful solar observatory using megaliths!

Lahaina Noon at Honolulu

2016-05-25 12.27 stopsign

Honolulu, May 25, 2016.

Today, it is one day before the technical date of Lahaina Noon in Honolulu. See our previous post:, which gives the date of May 26 at 12:28 HST for this event.

The above photo was taken at 12:27 pm HST clock time. It shows that the stop sign shows no shadow.

We have been wanting to take a photo such as this for a long time. So, please enjoy it with us.


Lahaina Noon, Kau ka la i ka lolo: When the sun passes overhead

Summer Solstice         june-solstice-illustration

For the northern hemisphere, summer solstice is the day when the sun in the sky is at its northernmost position. In 2016, summer solstice occurs in Honolulu, Hawaii, on Monday, June 20, 2016 at 12:34 pm.

Tropic Zones

The tropic zones arWorld_map_indicating_tropics_and_subtropicse bordered by latitudes 23.44° N for the Tropic of Cancer and 23.44° S for the Tropic of Capricorn. These are places on the earth’s surface that lie directly below the sun’s path in the sky. They are indicated by the pink band in the figure. 

Hawaii in the Tropic of Cancer2003-3d-hawaiian-islands-usgs-i2809

Hawaii is the only one of the United States that lies within the tropic zone, 16° 55′ N to about 23° N. The latitude-longitude of Honolulu is 21º 18′ N, 157º 51′ W.

“Lahaina Noon”maxresdefault

For places on earth lying within the tropic zones, the sun will be at zenith (directly overhead) at local noon on one or two days in the year. Right on the Tropic of Cancer, there is only one day, the June solstice. At all other places in the Tropic of Cancer, the sun passes through the zenith on two days. In Hawaii, the popular name for these two events is called Lahaina Noon, named after Lahaina, Maui. The exact dates and times vary slightly from year to year, and definitely by latitude. At the time of Lahaina Noon, the sun casts no shadow of an object that is perfectly vertical, such as a telephone pole or a flagpole.

Path of the Sun in the Skydeclination

From the winter solstice when the sun rises from its southernmost extreme, the sun’s path in the sky moves northward, culminating at its most northern extent on the summer solstice. Thus, Lahaina noon occurs first for the southernmost Hawaiian island and moves slowly up the archipelago. As we see from the chart below, this occurs between May 18 and May 30 for the  cities of Hilo, Hawaii north to Lihue, Kauai. The sun “stands still” at the solstice on June 20, and then makes its southward way. It passes directy over Honolulu on July 15 and Hilo on July 24.

Dates for Lahaina noon, 2016

  • 19.7° N Hilo May 18  12:16 pm;      July 24  12:27 pm.
  • 20.9° N Lahaina May 24 12:23 pm;     July 18  12:33 pm.
  • 21.3° N Honolulu May 26  12:28 pm;     July 15  12:37 pm.
  • 22.0° N Lihue May 30 12:35 pm;     July 11 12:42 pm.
  • 23.4° N Tropic of Cancer June 20  12:34 pm (summer solstice)

Papahānaumokuākea and Mokumanamana


The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is a U.S. National Monument encompassing 140,000 square miles of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

Mokumanamana is a small island in the chain; it is located at 23°35′N 164°42′W, currently 8 miles north of the Tropic of Cancer. Mokumanamana appears in the center of this chart. Moku means island in Hawaiian, and mana means spiritual energy. We can well understand that this is an Island of Great Mana, a sacred place to ancient Hawaiian people. Although it now lies just north of the Tropic of Cancer, it was once exactly on the tropic line. At that time, Mokumanamana’s Lahaina Noon date was exactly on summer solstice day, making Mokumanamana a very special place, indeed.

Addition of 2017.04.02:

Lahaina Noon Update:  Kau ka la i ka lolo


This post is about Kau ka la ia ka lolo, the traditional term for the passage kau of the sun at the zenith over one’s head.

At the Windward Community College in Kaneohe, Hawaii, is a Polynesian voyaging display on permanent view. It is highly recommended for those interested in how the Polynesian people journeyed over vast distances with great navigational skill. You can view a scale model of the  Hōkūleʻa voyaging canoe and an introduction to Hawaiian astronomy. We thank Professor Joseph Ciotti for preparation of the exhibit and explaining it to us. Dr. Ciotti remarked that it was the eminent Hawaiian historian, Rubellite Kawena Johnson who provided him with the proper term for this celestial event. 

Above is a photo we took of the Kau ka la ia ka lolo exhibit. The text reads as follows:

‘Twice a year the noontime sun passes directly overhead. Kau ka la ia ka lolo was believed to be a time of great mana. At this moment a person’s shadow (aka) disappeared and was thought to enter his sacred head. The two dates for these solar zenith passages are marked on the map for different places on O’ahu.

Note: We have only recently found the correct Hawaiian name for this event. It is Kau ka la i ka lolo. We are grateful to Rubellite Kawena Johnson and Professor Joseph Ciotti for this valuable information.